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舊 2006-05-16, 05:01 PM   #1
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預設 路由器 IOS 昇級方法總結

路由器 IOS 昇級方法總結
在介紹CISCO路由器IOS昇級方法前,有必要對Cisco路由器的儲存於器的相關知識作以簡單介紹。路由器與電腦相似,它也有記憶體和作業系統。在Cisco路 由器中,其作業系統叫做互連網作業系統(Internetwork Operating System),常簡稱為IOS。路由器的儲存於器主要有:
ROM:唯讀儲存於器包含路由器正在使用的IOS的一份副本;
RAM:IOS將隨機訪問儲存於器分成共享和主存。主要用來儲存於執行中的路由器組態和與路由傳輸協定有關的IOS資料結構;
FLASH (FlashRom):用來儲存於IOS軟體映像文件,FlashRom是可以擦除記憶體,它能夠用IOS的新版本覆寫,IOS昇級主要是FlashRom中的IOS映像文件進行更換。

NVRAM:非易失性隨機訪問儲存於器,用來儲存於系統的組態文件。

IOS昇級方法一

在對能夠正常啟動的CISCO路由器的IOS進行昇級時,比較簡單。具體步驟如下:

1、尋找一種TFTP伺服器軟體(有CISCO公司的TFTPServer或3COM公司的3Cserver等,在昇級較大IOS映像文件時,建議用3Cserver),安裝在一台電腦上,將要昇級的IOS映像檔案拷貝到相關的目錄中(例:D:\),並執行TFTP伺服器軟體,通過表單設定Root目錄為拷貝IOS映像文件所在目錄(如D:\)。假設該電腦的IP位址為10.32.10.1;

2、連接路由器的console口與PC機的COM1,使用PC的超級終端軟體訪問路由器,將路由器的位址設為10.32.10.32(與電腦的IP位址同網段即可)。建議在進行IOS昇級前將原有IOS文件制作備份下來,防止待昇級的IOS文件存在問題不可用;




Router# dir flash: (檢視目前IOS映像檔案名,也可用Router#Show version)

Directory of flash:/

1 -rw- 5998292 C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN

8388608 bytes total (2390252 bytes free)

Router#copy flash tftp (制作備份IOS文件)

Source filename []?c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin

Address or name of remote host []? 10.32.10.1 (TFTP伺服器位址)

Destination filename [c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin]?

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

5998292 bytes copied in 324.071 secs (18509 bytes/sec)

Router#
3、對路由器進行IOS昇級;



QUOTE:
Router#copy tftp flash

Address or name of remote host []? 10.32.10.1 (TFTP伺服器位址)

Source filename []? c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin (需昇級的新IOS映像檔案名)

Destination filename [c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin]?

Do you want to over write? [confirm]

Accessing tftp://10.32.10.1/c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin...

Erase flash: before copying? [confirm]

Erasing the flash filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]

Erasing device... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ...erasedee

Erase of flash: complete

Loading c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin from 10.32.10.1 (via Ethernet0/0): !!!!!!!!!!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

[OK - 5998292 bytes]

Verifying checksum... OK (0xA0C0)

5998292 bytes copied in 318.282 secs (18846 bytes/sec)

Router#

IOS昇級方法二

由於昇級失敗後或者路由器的config-register暫存器值為0x2101時,開啟路由器時、或者在開啟(某些型號)Cisco路由器的電源開關後30秒內按下Ctrl+break鍵,中斷路由器的正常啟動,路由器都會進入rom監視模式,即Router(boot)〉,在這種情形下,對路由器的IOS進行昇級,也比較簡單。首先進入特權模式下,即



QUOTE:
Router(boot)〉en

Router(boot)#
其他昇級步驟同方法一,即:執行copy tftp flash指令,對IOS進行昇級。昇級完成後,不要忘了修改config-register暫存器值為0x2102(恢復正常值)。


QUOTE:
Router(boot)# t

Router(boot)( config)# config-register 0x2102

Router(boot)( config)#exit

Router(boot)#wr

Router(boot)#reload
重新啟動即可。

IOS昇級方法三

由於不小心使用了指令erase flash或昇級失敗後或在開啟(某些型號)Cisco路由器的電源開關後30秒內按下Ctrl+break鍵,中斷路由器的正常啟動,路由器都會進入rom監視模式,即 rommon 1〉,在這種情形下,對路由器的IOS進行昇級,情況要稍微複雜一點。在rommon 1〉狀態下,可鍵?請求說明 。(1為指令行序號,每執行1條指令自動加1)



QUOTE:
rommon 1 〉 ?

alias set and display aliases command

boot boot up an external process

break set/show/clear the breakpoint

confreg configuration register utility

cont continue executing a downloaded image

context display the context of a loaded image

cookie display contents of cookie PROM in hex

dev list the device table

dir list files in file system

dis display instruction stream

dnld serial download a program module

frame print out a selected stack frame

help monitor builtin command help

history monitor command history

meminfo main memory information

repeat repeat a monitor command

reset system reset

set display the monitor variables

stack produce a stack trace

sync write monitor environment to NVRAM

sysret print out info from last system return

tftpdnld tftp image download

unalias unset an alias

unset unset a monitor variable

xmodem x/ymodem image download

rommon 2 〉
在rommon 1〉狀態下有兩種昇級IOS方法。

(一)、通過Xmodem指令(註:Xmodem與實際的modem沒有任何聯繫 只是一個傳輸傳輸協定 資料是通過終端的串列阜和路由器的Console口灌進去的)昇級IOS,具體步驟如下:

1、用Cisco原配的線纜連接路由器的console口與PC機的COM1,使用PC機的超級終端軟體訪問路由器,這時不需要對PC和路由器組態任何位址。

2、在這個模式下,輸入Xmodem指令,即:


QUOTE:
rommon 2 〉 xmodem -c c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin

(-c是帶校驗,c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin為存放在PC機上的IOS映像文件)

WARNING: All existing data in bootflash will be lost!

Invoke this application only for disaster recovery.

Do you wish to continue? y/n [n]: y
Ready to receive file c2600-i-mz.122-11.bin ... (此時在超級終端的傳送欄目=〉 選項傳送文件選項 =〉 再選項Xmodem 並指明IOS映像文件所在的路徑,按傳送即開始上傳IOS,等待時間很長,視IOS的大小和傳輸速度。)


QUOTE:
Erasing flash at 0x607c0000

program flash location 0x605b0000

Download Complete!
傳完以後,對整個系統啟始化 顯示如下:


QUOTE:
program load complete, entry point: 0x80008000, size: 0x5b85e0

Self decompressing the image : #################################################

################################################# [OK]

Smart Init is disabled. IOMEM set to: 10

Using iomem percentage: 10

Restricted Rights Legend

Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is

subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph

(c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted

Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph

(c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer

Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.

cisco Systems, Inc.

170 West Tasman Drive

San Jose, California 95134-1706

Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software

IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 12.2(11)T9, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

TAC Support: http://www.cisco.com/tac

Copyright (c) 1986-2003 by cisco Systems, Inc.

Compiled Mon 23-Jun-03 15:42 by cmong

Image text-base: 0x8000809C, data-base: 0x80A68B48

cisco 2610 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x203) with 22528K/2048K bytes of memory

Processor board ID JAD03483395 (1128032249)

M860 processor: part number 0, mask 49

Bridging software.

X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.

1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)

2 Serial(sync/async) network interface(s)

32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.

8192K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)

Press RETURN to get started!

*Mar 1 00:00:05.652: %PA-2-UNDEFPA: Undefined Port Adaptor type 100 in bay 1

*Mar 1 00:00:07.996: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Ethernet0/0, changed state to up

*Mar 1 00:00:07.996: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0/0, changed state to down

*Mar 1 00:00:07.996: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0/1, changed state to down

*Mar 1 00:00:09.142: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Ethernet0/0, changed state to up

*Mar 1 00:00:09.142: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/0, changed state to down

*Mar 1 00:00:09.142: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/1, changed state to down

*Mar 1 00:00:09.458: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from memory by console

*Mar 1 00:00:11.245: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/1, changed state to administratively down

*Mar 1 00:00:12.275: %SYS-5-RESTART: System restarted --Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software

IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 12.2(11)T9, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

TAC Support: http://www.cisco.com/tac

Copyright (c) 1986-2003 by cisco Systems, Inc.

Compiled Mon 23-Jun-03 15:42 by cmong

*Mar 1 00:00:12.279: %SNMP-5-COLDSTART: SNMP agent on host NE16 is undergoing a cold start

Router〉

採用這種方法時,由於使用console口來傳送,速率為9600bps,需要時間較長。因此可修改console口速率利用xmodem指令實現快速昇級IOS。具體方法如下:


QUOTE:
rommon 1 〉 confreg Enter鍵

Configuration Summary

enabled are:

load rom after netboot fails

console baud: 9600

boot: image specified by the boot system commands

or default to: cisco2-C2600

do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: y (選項 yes)

enable 「diagnostic mode「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

enable 「use net in IP bcast address「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

disable 「load rom after netboot fails「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

enable 「use all zero broadcast「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

enable 「break/abort has effect「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

enable 「ignore system config info「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

change console baud rate? y/n [n]: y (選項 yes)

enter rate: 0 = 9600, 1 = 4800, 2 = 1200, 3 = 2400

4 = 19200, 5 = 38400, 6 = 57600, 7 = 115200 [0]: 7 (選項 7,用最大的11520

速率的xmodem傳輸)

change the boot characteristics? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

Configuration Summary

enabled are:

load rom after netboot fails

console baud: 115200

boot: image specified by the boot system commands

or default to: cisco2-C2600

do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

You must reset or power cycle for new config to take effect

rommon 2 〉 reset Enter鍵
注意:在按reset鍵前,需要修改串列阜速度(我的電腦---連接阜內容----串列阜速度調為115200),然後再修改超級終端裡設定速率為115200,記住,一定要這麼做,否則會出現亂碼! 然後關閉這個超級終端,重新增立一個超級終端連接,重新啟動系統後,出現


QUOTE:
rommon 1〉 提示號
然後,輸入


QUOTE:
rommon 1〉 xmodem -r

Do not start the sending program yet...

Invoke this application only for disaster recovery.

Do you wish to continue? y/n [n]: y (選項 yes)

Ready to receive file ...
此時,在超級終端的表單上的「傳送」---「傳送文件」----選項IOS映像文件所在地以及選項使用「xmodem」傳輸協定,點擊「傳送」即可。等待10-20分鍾左右就可昇級完3-6M的IOS文件!待昇級完成後,請記住修改回電腦串列阜與超級終端、路由器confreg下的xmodem等傳輸速率為9600bps。

方法如下:


QUOTE:
Router〉en 進入新IOS的特權模式

Router#reload 重新啟動系統

Proceed with reload? [confirm] Enter鍵

00:01:04: %SYS-5-RELOAD: Reload requested

System Bootstrap, Version 11.3(2)XA4, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

Copyright (c) 1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.

TAC:Home:SW:IOS:Specials for info

PC = 0xfff0a530, Vector = 0x500, SP = 0x680127b0

C2600 platform with 24576 Kbytes of main memory

PC = 0xfff0a530, Vector = 0x500, SP = 0x80004684

monitor: command 「boot「 aborted due to user interrupt

30秒內按ctrl+break鍵

rommon 1 〉 confreg ( 輸入「confreg」指令)

Configuration Summary

enabled are:

load rom after netboot fails

console baud: 115200

boot: image specified by the boot system commands

or default to: cisco2-C2600

do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: y (選項 yes)

enable 「diagnostic mode「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

enable 「use nn IP bcast address「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

disable 「load rom after netboot fails「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

enable 「use all zero broadcast「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

enable 「break/abort has effect「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

enable 「ignore system config info「? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

change console baud rate? y/n [n]: y (選項 yes)

enter rate: 0 = 9600, 1 = 4800, 2 = 1200, 3 = 2400

4 = 19200, 5 = 38400, 6 = 57600, 7 = 115200 [7]: 0 (選項 0,改回用標準速率速率9600的xmodem傳輸)

change the boot characteristics? y/n [n]: n (選項 no)

Configuration Summary

enabled are:

load rom after netboot fails

console baud: 9600

boot: image specified by the boot system commands

or default to: cisco2-C2600

do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: n You must reset or power cycle for new config to take effect

rommon 2 〉
此時手動式改回電腦串列阜與超級終端2者傳輸速率為9600

然後敲入


QUOTE:
rommon 2 〉reset
最好關掉電源後,重新啟動。利用xmodem指令實現路由器IOS昇級速度較慢,往往等上很長時間,為了快速昇級,可以採用下列方法。

(二)通過tftpdnld指令昇級IOS,具體步驟如下:

1、用Cisco原配的線纜連接路由器的console口與PC機的COM1,使用PC機的超級終端軟體訪問路由器;用一根雙絞線連接路由器的eth0/0口與PC機的網路卡。

2、將路由器的eth0/0口IP位址設為10.32.10.32;PC機的IP位址設為10.32.10.1。將要昇級的IOS映像檔案拷貝到相關的目錄中,並執行TFTP伺服器軟體,通過表單設定Root目錄為拷貝IOS映像文件所在目錄。

3、通過set 指令檢視組態參數



QUOTE:
rommon 2 〉 set

PS1=rommon ! 〉

BOOT=

BSI=0

RET_2_RTS=

?=0
4、在 rommon 狀態下輸入:(注意大小寫)


QUOTE:
rommon 3 〉IP_ADDRESS=10.32.10.1 (路由器的ip位址)

rommon 4 〉IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0 (路由器的掩碼)

rommon 5 〉DEFAULT_GATEWAY=10.32.10.32 (預設網路閘道,是pc機的ip位址)

rommon 6 〉TFTP_SERVER=10.32.10.32 (是pc機的ip位址)

rommon 7 〉TFTP_FILE=C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN (上傳ios文件的名稱)

rommon 8〉sync (儲存參數組態)

rommon 9 〉set (檢視)

rommon 10 〉 set

PS1=rommon ! 〉

BOOT=

IP_ADDRESS=10.32.10.1

IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0

DEFAULT_GATEWAY=10.32.10.32

TFTP_SERVER=10.32.10.32

TFTP_FILE=C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN

BSI=0

RET_2_RTS=

?=0

rommon 11 〉tftpdnld
執行tftpdnld指令進行ios昇級,有時可能會報告錯誤或指令不執行,這時只要用sync指令儲存組態後,重新啟動路由器(最好關掉電源再開機)後,再執行tftpdnld指令就可以了。


QUOTE:
rommon 11 〉tftpdnld(傳送文件)出現提示選項y

IP_ADDRESS: 10.32.10.1

IP_SUBNET_MASK: 255.255.255.0

DEFAULT_GATEWAY: 10.32.10.32

TFTP_SERVER: 10.32.10.32

TFTP_FILE: C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN

Invoke this command for disaster recovery only.

WARNING: all existing data in all partitions on flash will be lost!

Do you wish to continue? y/n: [n]: y

Receiving C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN from 10.32.10.32!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!



!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

File reception completed.

Copying file C2600-I-MZ.122-11.BIN to flash.

Erasing flash at 0x607c0000

program flash location 0x605b0000

rommon 13 〉

在rommon 13 〉提示號下按鍵輸入reset,或重新啟動路由器(power-cycle),進入正常啟始狀態,即:

Router〉

在Cisco2500、2600、7200等系列路由器上均實際操作過,以上為在Cisco2610路由器上實際操作捕獲或抓圖,所配位址只是特例,大家可根據實際需要予以修改。最後建議:大家在作正常路由器系統昇級時,為防止不正確操作等引起的昇級失敗,請先把路由器原有的系統制作備份下來。
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wulihua (2006-08-24)
感謝您發表一篇好文章