Particle size distribution
Powders and granular materials are sometimes described as having a certain mesh size (e.g. 30 mesh sand). By itself, this type of description is somewhat ambiguous. More precise specifications will indicate that a material will pass through some specific mesh (that is, have a maximum size; larger pieces won't fit through this mesh) but will be retained by some specific tighter mesh (that is, a minimum size; pieces smaller than this will have passed through the mesh). This type of description establishes a range of particle sizes.
One notation for indicating particle size distribution using mesh size is to use + and - designations. A "+" before the sieve mesh indicates the particles are retained by the sieve, while a "-" before the sieve mesh indicates the particles pass through the sieve. This means that typically 90% or more of the particles will have mesh sizes between the two values.
For instance, if the particle size of a material is described as -80/+170 (or could also be written -80 +170), then 90% or more of the material will pass through an 80 mesh sieve and be retained by a 170 mesh sieve. Using the conversion chart below, the resulting particles will have a range of diameters between 0.089 and 0.178 mm (89 and 178 micrometers).
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